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The Origins of Biscuits and Cookies

The historical past of the biscuit follows that of sugar and it appears that evidently the primary biscuits had been baked in Persia throughout the seventh Century BCE. It wasn’t till the Moorish conquest of Spain and the crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries that Arabic cooking practices slowly got here to Europe.

The fashionable biscuit, nevertheless, is a French invention, and by the 14th century it was potential to purchase little fruit-filled wafers on the streets of paris. The identify of those comes from a corruption of the Latin bis cotum (baked twice) which grew to become biscuit in English and biscotti in Italian. Historically, such biscuits are arduous and dry in texture and so they’re know (and commonplace) from recipe books going again not less than to the Elizabethan period.

In distinction, cookies are Dutch in origin. The identify itself derives from the Dutch phrase ‘koekje’ (small or spherical cake) which represents the small items of dough that Dutch bakers used to put of their ovens to check the temperature. Nonetheless, the traditional cookie, the ‘cocolate chip cookie’ was solely invented in 1937 by Ruth Graves Wakefield (1905-1977), of Whitman, Massachusetts, who ran the Toll Home Restaurant. This kind of cookie did not attain nationwide fame till 1939 when Betty Crocker popularized it in her radio present. Immediately, nevertheless, the chocolate chip cookie is by far the most common baked and eaten cake in America.

Beneath you’ll find a recipe for a traditional British biscuit and a traditional American cookie with the intention to bake these for yourselves and respect each the similarities and the variations between these traditional baked items.

Fruit Shrewsbury Biscuits

It is a traditional and simple to bake frivolously fruited biscuit Resepi Kuih Raya, ostensibly originating within the Shrewsbury area of England.

Elements:
125g butter
150g caster sugar2 egg yolks
225g plain flour
freshly-grated zest of 1 lemon
60g currants
sugar to mud

Technique:
Cream collectively the butter and sugar till pale and fluffy then add the egg yolks and beat collectively to mix.
Stir-in the flour, lemon zest and currants. Combine to a agency dough (add a little bit water if it is too stiff) then flip onto a lightly-floured floor and knead frivolously. Roll out to about 5mm thick and reduce into rounds with a 6cm pastry cutter with fluted edges.

Switch the pastry rounds onto lightly-greased baking sheets and place in an oven pre-heated to 180°C, baking for about 15 minutes or till the biscuits are agency and solely very barely browned.

Take away from the oven and mud the highest with coarse sugar then permit to chill on the baking trays for 10 minutes earlier than transferring to wire racks to chill utterly.

Chocolate Chip Cookies

That is the traditional American chocolate chip cookie recipe made with brown and granulated sugars and hearkens again to the 1937 unique.

Elements:
225g unsalted butter
150g granulated sugar
160g mild brown sugar
2 massive eggs
1 half of tsp vanilla extract
320g plain flour
1 tsp baking soda
half of tsp salt
260g plain chocolate chips
120g walnuts or pecans, coarsely chopped (optionally available)

Technique:
Cream collectively the butter and sugar in a bowl till mild and fluffy. Combine the eggs collectively in a bowl then add a little bit at a time to the butter combine, combining completely after every addition. Now add the vanilla and beat in to mix.

In a separate bowl sift collectively the flour, baking soda and salt. Add the dry components to the egg and butter combination and beat completely till utterly included. Add the chocolate chips (and the nuts, if utilizing) about half means by means of mixing so that they are evenly distributed by means of the dough.

The dough must be pretty agency and if you happen to discover it too tender then cowl and refrigerate for about 30 minutes (it will set the butter and make the dough stiffer). When prepared drop about 2 tbsp of the combination per cookie onto a lightly-greased baking tray, permitting not less than 8cm between every cookie for them to unfold. Place in an oven pre-heated to 190°C and bake for about 12 minutes, or till golden brown across the edges. Permit the combination to chill for 10 minutes on the baking tray earlier than transferring to a wire rack to chill utterly.

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